Produced by Peter Flax, the series of video testimonies opens with these simple words: “Seventy years ago, the Holocaust ended. Only 11 people who lived through it remain from the world of entertainment. Now, in gripping video testimonials, Oscar winners, actors, Dr. Ruth and even Judy Garland’s hairstylist tell their personal stories, filled with hope and horror, one last time as their themes of genocide, displacement and discrimination continue to resonate today.”
Here, in another episode of Frame by Frame, I discuss the decline in theatrical film viewing in favor of at home video on demand streaming, as used in platforms like Netflix, Hulu, Amazon and others, as DVDs fade into the distance, and theatrical screenings become a more and more rare experience. This is unfortunate, because the only way you can really see a film – and see all the detail within each shot, is on a big screen, which is the size that 90% of all films were originally made to be seen in, before the advent of television.
Now, of course, TV is fading away, as more and more people are content to watch films in their living room, and given the relative convenience and safety of seeing a film at home – as I note – who can blame them? But nevertheless, the fact remains that, as my late friend the director Roy Ward Baker once told me – and I never forgot it – “on a DVD or television, you can inspect a film, but you can’t experience it.” And it’s absolutely true, which is why seeing a film in a theater remains – after all these years – the optimal way to really see a film.
For some time now, Curt Bright and I have been creating educational videos for a UNL series called Frame by Frame, covering various aspects of film, media, and the digital world as we enter the first decades of the 21st century. In this episode, I talk about the problems facing independent creators now – most specifically, how to get their work out before the public in an oversaturated marketplace.
Where once every film had to open in a theater in order to make back its investment, now there are so many different platforms available that distributors throw their cash at those films where they have the highest degree of financial exposure, resulting in a world in which only mainstream blockbusters make it to a large audience. Here, I discuss ways to work around this, and get a more balanced view of what’s going in the world of cinema on a national and international level.
As Brent Lang notes in Variety, 20th Century Fox “has just reached the century mark and to recognize the milestone, it is re-releasing a hundred films spanning the silent era, continuing through the golden age of Hollywood and ending in the early ’90s.
The pictures will be available on digital HD for the first time in their history, and include such classic films as F.W. Murnau’s Sunrise, Raoul Walsh’s Big Trail and John Ford’s Men Without Women. The first batch of titles will be available Thursday and includes the musical Can-Can, the western My Darling Clementine and Pigskin Parade — a 1936 musical that marked Judy Garland’s film debut. There are also more modern offerings such as the Julia Roberts thriller Sleeping With the Enemy and the Michael Douglas adventure Romancing the Stone.
The shift away from DVDs and the collapse of the video store could have dealt a death blow to classic movies, but Fox’s home entertainment team says the digital revolution appears to have ushered in a renaissance of film appreciation. ‘You’re not trying to hold shelf space in a retail outlet,’ said Mike Dunn, president of 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment.
‘It allows you to have more of your catalog readily available, because you put it on iTunes and it stays there. You’re not being judged by how many units it sells. Services like iTunes want to be completists.’
In fact, catalogue titles now make up more than 40% of digital sales. That’s massive growth from four years ago, when they comprised approximately 5% of digital receipts, and Dunn expects their popularity will continue. To help draw attention to the offerings, Apple will have a dedicated iTunes landing page featuring these new titles.
‘Acquiring movies is so easy now,’ said Dunn. ‘You read about something and maybe there’s a reference to a filmmaker’s historical work, and my thumb moves across my phone and I’ve bought it.’ Although there are financial incentives to offering these pictures to the public, the studio positioned the move as about more than dollars and cents.
‘We are custodians of a great legacy of filmmakers whose contributions here span 100 years,’ said Jim Gianopulos, chairman and CEO of Twentieth Century Fox Film. ‘We owe their work our best efforts to preserve and protect it, and to make these important films accessible in their best possible presentation for generations to come.’”
Well, that’s all very well, but for those who want the superior visual quality of physical media, HD downloads just don’t make it. Watching a film on your iPhone really has nothing to with really experiencing the film on the screen – these films were never made for such small dimensions. While this is better than simply storing these titles away in a vault, it’s just not the same as theatrical, or physical media, which with care will last a fairly long time. HD downloads, not so much.
Iris Elezi, a UNL Film Studies graduate, has just completed her first feature film, Bota (The World), which she co-scripted and co-directed with her husband, Thomas Logoreci. Completed in 2014, the film has been making the rounds of festivals throughout Europe, and is now getting rave reviews here in the US, where it will be making the rounds of festivals and screenings on the art house circuit.
As Alissa Simon writes in Variety, “A pleasingly melancholy dramedy from first-time feature helmers Iris Elezi and Thomas Logoreci, Bota illustrates the complicated relationship Albanians have with their dark past. Set in the country’s isolated marshlands, the cleverly constructed film offers a multilayered slice of life and, like the swampy ground on which it is set, gradually reveals unexpected depths. Compelling, surprising and tenderly performed, this low-key arthouse title deserves further distribution and clearly marks its co-directors as talents to watch. It will represent Albania in the foreign-language Oscar race.
The title, which translates as The World, refers to the cafe-bar where most of the action unfolds. Perched on stilts, with a dilapidated Mercedes on the roof and mint-green walls full of original artwork, Bota is the spot where the hopes and dreams of the three main characters are revealed — and often dashed.
Bota overlooks a dusty road on the outskirts of a small village, consisting of a few run-down communist-era high-rises. Throughout the film, a running joke sees herds of animals wander by — sheep, cows, even ducks. So little happens in the vicinity that the chief waitress, Juli (Flonja Kodheli), doesn’t even have a cell phone. But in the old times, under the dictator Enver Hoxha, the area housed a penal camp for ‘enemies of the state,’ some of whom were even executed there, and their bodies thrown into the marshes. Now, the construction of a nearby highway creates hope that progress and perhaps even some prosperity may be at hand.
[Throughout the film] Elezi and Logoreci constantly and delightfully confound expectations. They keep the quirky action and tone true to their extensive character development . . . the production package is aces all around; the attractive music track incorporates beguiling Albanian pop tunes of the 1960s to atmospheric and nostalgic effect.” This is a real accomplishment for Iris – years of hard work, and it’s paid off. Iris just sent both myself and Professor Foster a note with the good news – we’re really happy for her success!
“Yesterday I fell asleep on the sofa with a few dozen pages of War and Peace to go. I could hear my cell phone buzzing from its perch on top of the piano. I saw the glowing green eye of my Cyclops modem as it broadcast potential distraction all around. But on I went past the turgid military campaigns and past the fretting of Russian princesses, until sleep finally claimed me and my head, exhausted, dreamed of nothing at all.
This morning I finished the thing at last. The clean edges of its thirteen hundred pages have been ruffled down into a paper cabbage, the cover is pilled from the time I dropped it in the bath. Holding the thing aloft, trophy style, I notice the book is slightly larger than it was before I read it.
It’s only after the book is laid down, and I’ve quietly showered and shaved, that I realize I haven’t checked my e-mail today. The thought of that duty comes down on me like an anvil. Instead, I lie back on the sofa and think some more about my favorite reader Milton – about his own anxieties around reading.
By the mid-1650s, he had suffered that larger removal from the crowds, he had lost his vision entirely and could not read at all—at least not with his own eyes. From within this new solitude, he worried that he could no longer meet his potential. One sonnet, written shortly after the loss of his vision, begins:
When I consider how my light is spent,
Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide, and that one Talent
which is death to hide Lodged with me useless . . .
Yet from that position, in the greatest of caves, he began producing his greatest work. The epic Paradise Lost, a totemic feat of concentration, was dictated to aides, including his three daughters. Milton already knew, after all, the great value in removing himself from the rush of the world, so perhaps those anxieties around his blindness never had a hope of dominating his mind. I, on the other hand, and all my peers, must make a constant study of concentration itself.
I slot my ragged War and Peace back on the shelf. It left its marks on me the same way I left my marks on it (I feel awake as a man dragged across barnacles on the bottom of some ocean). I think: This is where I was most alive, most happy. How did I go from loving that absence to being tortured by it? How can I learn to love that absence again?”
The quote comes from an interview I gave to Peter Monaghan of Moving Image Archive News back in August on my new book Black and White Cinema: A Short History, in which I said that “if you go on Amazon and you see some great black-and-white film, and it’s going for $3, or any kind of foreign or obscure film, buy it, because it’s going out of print, and they’re not going to put them back into print. With VHS, everything came out, everything. And then they looked at what sold, and what didn’t sell didn’t make the jump to DVDs.
There were thousands of films, tens of thousands of films, that were on VHS and never made the jump to DVD. Important films. Now that we’re going to Blu-ray, lots of films aren’t making that jump. And then there’s electronic sell-through. If you download something, you’re not going to put it on your computer because it takes up too much space, so you’re going to have to put it up on ‘the cloud,’ and then you’re going to have to pay to store what you ostensibly own.”
As Patrick Hipes writes in AwardsLine, the sister publication of Deadline Hollywood, “Universal’s N.W.A. biopic Straight Outta Compton has been named Best Picture by the African American Film Critics Association, one of three categories it topped along with Best Ensemble and Best Supporting Actor for Jason Mitchell.
Best Director went to Creed helmer Ryan Coogler, while its star, Michael B. Jordan, won for Breakout Performance and Tessa Thompson was named Best Supporting Actress. Best Actor went to Will Smith for Concussion and Best Actress to Teyonah Parris for Spike Lee’s Chi-Raq.
The AAFCA honors excellence in cinema by creating awareness for films with universal appeal to black communities, while emphasizing films about the black experience and those produced written, directed and starring performers of African descent. It will hold its awards ceremony February 10 in Hollywood. Here’s the full list of winners:
Straight Outta Compton (Universal Pictures)
Ryan Coogler,Creed (Warner Bros.)
Straight Outta Compton (Universal Pictures)
Will Smith, Concussion (Sony)
Teyonah Parris, Chi-Raq (Roadside Attractions/Amazon Studios)
Best Supporting Actor
Jason Mitchell – Straight Outta Compton (Universal Pictures)
Best Supporting Actress
Tessa Thompson, Creed (Warner Bros.)
Best Independent Film
Chi-Raq (Roadside Attractions/Amazon Studios)
Rick Famuyiwa – Dope (Open Road Films)
Michael B. Jordan, Creed (Warner Bros.)
The Peanuts Movie (20thCentury Fox)
A Ballerina’s Tale (Sundance Selects)
“See You Again”, Furious 7 (Atlantic Records)
Best TV Comedy
Best TV Drama
How to Get Away with Murder (ABC)
Best Cable/New Media TV Show
Survivor’s Remorse (Starz)
AAFCA Top Ten Films of 2015 in order of distinction:
1. Straight Outta Compton (Universal Pictures)
2. Creed (Warner Bros.)
3. Mad Max: Fury Road (Warner Bros.)
4. Beasts of No Nation (Netflix)
5. The Martian (20th Century Fox)
6. 3-1/2 Minutes/Dope (HBO/Open Road Films)
7. Chi-Raq (Roadside Attractions/Amazon Studios)
8. Carol (Weinstein Co.)
9. The Big Short (Paramount Pictures)
10. The Danish Girl (Focus Features)
Misfits is a short, sharply observed 73 minute documentary about three American teenagers from conservative Tulsa, Oklahoma struggling with isolation and instability in a heartfelt story that portrays family bonds, poverty, survival, love and the consequences of coming out as a young LGBT in the Bible Belt. While the general public opinion towards gays within America is slowly changing, this coming-of-age story closely follows the three gay teen protagonists as they struggle to achieve a sense of self within families in a community that still widely condemns homosexuality.
Misfits was directed by Danish filmmaker Jannik Splidsboel, who earned a nomination at The Berlinale in 2009 for his documentary How Are You?, and was shot over a two year period on location. It’s a stunning, deeply moving film. Without sentimentalizing the material, and with a calm, almost meditational air, Misfits takes the viewer into a world which is once hard and yet beautiful, in which love struggles to find a voice, yet ultimately wins, despite seemingly overwhelming odds. It’s one of the finest films of 2015.
As critic Guy Lodge noted in a deeply perceptive review of the film in Variety, “if the global ‘It Gets Better’ campaign has lent a certain familiarity to narratives of gay teenage oppression and self-realization, that’s hardly something to be held against Misfits: Rather, Jannik Splidsboel’s delicate documentary works as a progress report on a movement that, in a just world, would be far older news by now. Sensitively following three members of an LGBT youth support group . . . as they find their respective paths in a society largely hostile to their alternative identities, Splidsboel’s film touches lightly on community politics, but is most illuminating and uplifting in its portrayal of hard-won domestic battles.
As Anthony D’Alessandro notes in Deadline Hollywood, “when Quentin Tarantino first discussed his vision with the Weinstein Co. to resurrect the roadshow picture for his eighth title The Hateful Eight in 70MM, there was one major hurdle to overcome: How could the cinema format be rebooted if most theaters don’t even have the equipment?
In a digital cinema age, few theaters own reel-to-reel projectors, let alone a 70MM machine. While these projectors were still common in the 1990s when Universal released Ron Howard’s immigrant epic Far and Away, by today’s standards they’re antiques.
All heads at the Weinstein Co. turned to Erik Lomis to meet this challenge. While his daily oversee at TWC as distribution chief entails booking titles in the widest number of theaters, Lomis was suddenly tasked with a rescue and secure mission akin to Vincent Vega and Jules Winnfield’s in Pulp Fiction: To obtain as many 70MM projectors for the roadshow release of Hateful Eight on Christmas Day.
‘In order to play the best theaters, we had to get them the equipment,’ says Lomis, ‘we bought into Quentin’s vision and we’re making it happen or we’ll die trying.’ Luckily, Lomis had a learning curve with the 70MM situation and the glitches that could arise when he released Paul Thomas Anderson’s The Master in September 2012. While Anderson shot in 65MM, the filmmaker didn’t insist on a minimum percentage of theaters showing The Master in 70MM.
At its widest point, The Master was shown in 70MM at 14 theaters, with a few prestige venues still in possession of the equipment, i.e. the Hollywood Cinerama Dome, The Grand Lake Theater in Oakland, and the Village East in New York City. During the run of The Master, dilemmas would ensue whereby a projectionist couldn’t thread the print or a projector’s motor would burn out. In such moments, the Weinstein Co. would send technicians out.
A few times, Lomis even rolled-up his sleeves and solved some 70MM problems in projection booths around L.A. ‘We even had Paul Thomas Anderson threading in one booth,’ recalls Lomis about one instance.”
About the Author
Wheeler Winston Dixon, Ryan Professor of Film Studies at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, is an internationally recognized scholar and writer of film history, theory and criticism. He is the author of thirty books and more than 100 articles on film, and appears regularly in national media outlets discussing film and culture trends. Frame by Frame is a collection of his thoughts on a number of those topics. All comments by Dixon on this blog are his own opinions.
In The National News
National media outlets featured and cited Wheeler Winston Dixon on a number of film, media and other topics in the past month - http://newsroom.unl.edu/inthenews/
- New Book: Gwendolyn Audrey Foster’s Disruptive Feminisms
- Artificial Intelligence is Transforming The Web
- The SAG Awards – Notice A Difference?
- More Movies in 2016 To Be Shot On Film
- Nate Parker’s “Birth Of A Nation” (2016) Electrifies Sundance
- Deniz Gamze Ergüven’s Compelling New Film “Mustang” (2015)
- Idris Elba’s Keynote Speech to Parliament on Diversity in the Media
- Recommended Book: Women, Art and the New Deal
- Download Millions of Feet of Newsreel Footage in Public Domain
- Listen to Piero Heliczer Read His Poems
- The Films of Piero Heliczer – A Retrospective
- Underwhelmed by Oscar Nods?
- Nominees for 88th Academy Awards Announced
- Class-Passing: Social Mobility in Film and Popular Culture
- Twenty British Films – A Guided Tour by Brian McFarlane
- Frame By Frame: Things To ComeUNL Film Studies Professor Wheeler Winston Dixon talks about the British science-fiction classic written by H.G. Wells. […]
- Frame By Frame: Val LewtonUNL Film Studies Professor Wheeler Winston Dixon scares up the films of 1940s horror movie producer Val Lewton. […]
- Frame By Frame: Independent Filmmaking in the 21st CenturyProfessor Dixon talks about the problems facing independent creators now – most specifically, how to get their work out before the public in an oversaturated marketplace […]
- Frame By Frame: The Celluloid BacklashProfessor Wheeler Winston Dixon examines the resurgence of 35mm film over digital formats. […]
- Frame By Frame: The Theatrical ExperienceProfessor Wheeler Winston Dixon discusses how audiences watch movies today and how that is changing the way movies will be made in the future. […]
- Frame by Frame: Science Fiction FuturismUNL Film Studies Professor Wheeler Winston Dixon discusses the 2015 Ridley Scott film "The Martian," and the accuracy (and often inaccuracy) of science-fiction films at predicting real advancements in science and technology. http://www.unl.edu/english/film-studies […]
- Frame by Frame: Batman v SupermanUNL Film Studies Professor Wheeler Winston Dixon discusses the genre of comic book movies in the context of "Batman v Superman." […]
- Frame by Frame: Comic Book MoviesUNL Film Studies Professor Wheeler Winston Dixon discusses movies based on comics. […]
- Frame By Frame: Star WarsUNL Film Studies Professor Wheeler Winston Dixon discusses the history and future of the Star Wars film franchise. […]
- Frame By Frame: War MoviesUNL Film Studies professor Wheeler Winston Dixon at one of the earliestand most enduring film genres, the war movie. […]
- Frame By Frame - Hollywood ComposersUNL Film Studies professor Wheeler Winston Dixon highlights the most prolific Hollywood film composers. […]
- Frame By Frame - Film CriticsUNL Film Studies professor Wheeler Winston Dixon explains why there's more to reviewing films than just "thumbs up" or "thumbs down." […]
- Frame By Frame - Charlie ChaplinUNL Film Studies professor Wheeler Winston Dixon examines the work of the iconic silent comedian Charlie Chaplin. […]
- Frame By Frame - Film MagazinesUNL Film Studies professor Wheeler Winston Dixon pages through the must-read journals of any serious film student. […]
- Frame By Frame - DocumentariesUNL Film Studies professor Wheeler Winston Dixon recommends some excellent documentary films. […]
- Frame By Frame - Ridley ScottUNL Film Studies professor Wheeler Winston Dixon reviews the films of director Ridley Scott. […]
- Frame By Frame - Buster KeatonBuster Keaton, the great "Stone Face" of silent comedies, is remembered by UNL Film Studies professor Wheeler Winston Dixon. […]
- Frame By Frame - Hollywood after September 11, 2001UNL Film Studies Professor Wheeler Winston Dixon examines how Hollywood films change after national emergencies like the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the attacks of 9/11. […]
- Frame By Frame - Les Dames du Bois de BoulogneUNL Film Studies professor Wheeler Winston Dixon recommends one of his all-time favorite films. […]
- Frame By Frame - Subtitles v. DubbingUNL Film Studies professor Wheeler Winston Dixon compares foreign-languagefilm dubbing to subtitles. […]
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