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Posts Tagged ‘Jean Cocteau’

Les Parents Terribles (1948)

Tuesday, February 24th, 2015

Jean Cocteau’s 1948 film – his best work as a director – isn’t available on DVD in the US.

It’s something of a mystery to me, since the film is so accomplished, and since the earlier adaptation of Les Enfants Terribles, directed by Jean-Pierre Melville, is so readily available in a superb transfer on DVD here, but Les Parents Terribles remains missing in action. It was released on VHS in the early 1990s with English subtitles, and there are still a few copies of that version kicking around on Amazon – and the quality is passable – but a fully restored DVD and Blu-ray of this exquisite film, based on Cocteau’s play of the same title, is long overdue – most critics agree it’s his finest moment as a filmmaker.

As an anonymous contributor to Wikipedia notes, the famed critic “André Bazin wrote a detailed review of the film in which he took up the idea of ‘pure cinema’ and tried to analyze how Cocteau had succeeded in creating it out of the most uncinematic material imaginable. Bazin highlights three features which assist this transition. Firstly the confidence and harmony of the actors, who have previously played their roles together many times on stage and are able to inhabit their characters as if by second nature, allow them to maintain an intensity of performance despite the fragmentation of the film-making process.

Secondly, Cocteau shows unusual freedom in his choice of camera positions and movements, seldom resorting to the conventional means of filming dialogue with reverse angle shots, and introducing close-ups and long shots with a sureness of touch that never disrupts the movement of the scene; the spectator is always placed in the position of a witness to the action (as in the theater), rather than a participant, and even that of a voyeur, given the intimacy of the camera’s gaze.

Thirdly, Bazin notes the psychological subtlety with which Cocteau chooses his camera positions to match the responses of his ‘ideal spectator.’ He cites an example of the shot in which Michel tells Yvonne about the girl he loves, his face placed above hers and both facing the audience, just as they had done in the theater; but in the film Cocteau uses a close-up which shows only the eyes of Yvonne below and the speaking mouth of Michel above, concentrating the image for the greatest emotional impact. In all of these aspects, the theatricality of the play is preserved but intensified through the medium of film.”

Get the VHS if you can; this is a film that should not be missed.

New Frame by Frame Video: Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne

Wednesday, September 19th, 2012

I have a new Frame by Frame video out today, directed and edited by Curt Bright, on the 1945 films Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne by Robert Bresson.

I have blogged about this film before; as I wrote then, “one of Robert Bresson’s most incandescent works, this early film also marks the teaming of two of France’s most personal and idiosyncratic artists: Robert Bresson and Jean Cocteau. Cocteau (whose 1949 film Orpheus [Orphée] mesmerized post-World War II audiences), in addition to his numerous other accomplishments, wrote the dialogue for Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne, loosely based on Denis Diderot’s short story Jacques le Fataliste et Son Maître. Elina Labourdette plays Agnès, a young woman who has been forced into a life of prostitution in wartime Vichy, France, in order to support herself and her ailing mother (Lucienne Bogaert).

At the same time, Hélène (the serpentine Maria Casarés) is breaking up with her longtime lover, Jean (Paul Bernard), and, feeling jilted by him, concocts an elaborate plot for revenge. Contacting Agnès and her mother, Hélène offers to take over their debts, move them out of the brothel they call home, and set them up in a sleek, modern apartment, with no strings attached. We discover too late Hélène’s true motives; she is doing all of this so that Jean will ‘accidentally’ meet Agnès, fall in love with her, marry her, and then become the subject of public ridicule because of Agnès’s past. All of this goes off with clockwork precision, but Jean, when confronted with the monstrousness of Hélène’s treachery, shakes off his bourgeois prudishness, embraces Agnès despite her fall from grace, and the film ends on a note of hope and Bressonian redemption. This film never fails to stun me with its sheer, vibrant beauty and psychological insight; I return to it again and again, and it never disappoints.”

I wrote an essay on the film in Senses of Cinema 46; you can read it here.

Jean Cocteau on Cinema, Art, and Immortality

Tuesday, February 21st, 2012

Click here, or on the image above, to see a documentary on Jean Cocteau.

It should come as no shock to readers of this blog that Jean Cocteau, the multi-talented French artist — filmmaker, poet, novelist, sculptor, muralist, librettist, painter, playwright, memoirist — is one of my favorite cinéastes. Here’s the first part of an excellent documentary on his life and work, which you can easily follow by clicking on the other links that present themselves after the first section. Cocteau is, as always, simultaneously quixotic and absolutely transparent in his various pronouncements, and his opening declaration that he “detests” frivolity and fantasy might seem at odds with much of this work, but then again, perhaps not — as one can easily see, Cocteau was absolutely serious about everything he did, as he makes manifestly clear in this film.

The Testament of Orpheus

Saturday, August 27th, 2011

A few thoughts on Jean Cocteau’s last feature film, the 1960 Testament of Orpheus (full title: Le testament d’Orphée, ou ne me demandez pas pourquoi!), which the poet/painter/director/playwright/novelist/muralist and all stops inbetween.

Cocteau was never wealthy, unlike his contemporary Pablo Picasso, though both shared the same level of artistic mastery (Picasso, a lifelong contemporary of Cocteau’s, has a cameo appearance in Testament), and so he turned to François Truffaut, as well as longtime patron Francine Weisweiller, to help him finance this, his final work.

The cast includes such luminaries as Charles Aznavour, Yul Brynner, Claudine Auger, María Casares and Jean Marais (who both appeared so memorably in Cocteau’s 1950 Orpheus), Serge Lifar, Jean-Pierre Léaud and numerous others, but Cocteau dominates the film, as he looks back on his long and multifaceted career.

Written, directed and starring the poet, some have called Testament an indulgent work, and perhaps it is; Cocteau is unabashedly celebrating himself and his accomplishments, and simultaneously gathering about himself for one last time those whom he loved and cherished as fellow artists, for a final bow.

Some have even gone so far as to suggest that Testament is a film that should never have been made; I, for one, can’t imagine the world without it. Indeed, the luster of the film only increases with the passing of years. As Cocteau himself observed of the act of creation, “art produces ugly things which frequently become more beautiful with time. Fashion, on the other hand, produces beautiful things which always become ugly with time.”

Cocteau was sometimes fashionable, sometimes ahead of his time, but never afraid to trust his own instincts as an artist. As he often advised young artists, “listen carefully to first criticisms made of your work.  Note just what it is about your work that critics don’t like – then cultivate it.  That’s the only part of your work that’s individual and worth keeping.” Cocteau did just that.

About the Author

Wheeler Winston Dixon

Wheeler Winston Dixon, Ryan Professor of Film Studies at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, is an internationally recognized scholar and writer of film history, theory and criticism. He is the author of thirty books and more than 100 articles on film, and appears regularly in national media outlets discussing film and culture trends. Frame by Frame is a collection of his thoughts on a number of those topics. To contact Prof. Dixon for an interview, reach him at 402.472.6064 or wdixon1@unl.edu. Visit him at his website, wheelerwinstondixon.com

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